Ethylene glycol butyl ether (EGBE), commonly found in industrial and household products, causes various reproductive issues, including damage to female fertility and developmental toxicity in offspring. EGBE exposure in pigs results in defective oocyte maturation, leading to cell structure and mitochondrial damage, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage, and oocyte death. Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) supplementation restores cell and mitochondrial integrity, reduces ROS levels, and protects oocyte quality against EGBE-induced damage. The findings suggest that NMN supplement benefits could be a strategy to safeguard human fertility against environmental pollutants. Experiments on pig oocytes revealed that EGBE disrupts cytoskeletal dynamics and mitochondrial function, leading to chromosome misalignment, increased ROS levels, DNA damage, and cell death. NMN egg quality implications emerge as a potential intervention to address infertility issues related to environmental pollutants. EGBE exposure has been linked to multiple reproductive issues in adult males and females, including testicular damage, diminished female fertility, embryonic fatalities, and congenital abnormalities. Notably, the adverse effects extend to developmental toxicity in offspring, posing a threat to the health of future generations. The precise mechanism through which EGBE influences female reproductive cells and oocyte quality has been elusive. EGBE’s Impact on Oocyte Maturation In their investigative study, Miao and colleagues at Nanjing Agricultural University discovered the specific effects of EGBE on oocyte maturation. They utilised pig oocytes as the subject of their research. Their findings elucidated that exposure to EGBE results in a defective maturation process of the egg cells, leading to compromised cell structure and mitochondrial function. The disruption manifests as impaired dynamics in the oocyte cytoskeleton, a cell shape and division component. Alongside this, there was also chromosome misalignment during cell division. These anomalies contribute to an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage, culminating in the untimely death of the oocytes. The study thus highlights the detrimental impact of EGBE on oocyte maturation. NMN Benefits And Protective Role Building on previous research demonstrating the restorative NMN egg quality benefits on aged mice oocytes, Miao and colleagues conducted an in-depth study. The aim was to explore the protective role of NMN against the reprotoxic effects of EGBE on pig oocytes. NMN, a precursor of the vital coenzyme NAD+, has shown potential in ameliorating various age-related cellular dysfunctions. Therefore, this study aimed to ascertain NMN efficacy in safeguarding oocyte quality from environmental pollutants. The researchers subjected pig oocytes to EGBE exposure, replicating the compromised conditions induced by the chemical. The oocytes exhibited defective cytoskeletal dynamics and chromosome misalignments, showing disrupted cell division and maturation processes. In this compromised state, the oocytes were vulnerable to increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage, and subsequent cell death. In a pivotal turn of the study, NMN was introduced as a supplemental intervention. At a concentration of 1 mM, NMN was found to alleviate the aberrations induced by EGBE. NMN supplement benefits were found to restore integrity to the oocytes’ cytoskeleton and align the chromosomes properly. Furthermore, NMN replenished the levels of NAD+, the coenzyme crucial for various cellular processes, including energy production and DNA repair. The restoration of NAD+ levels had a cascading effect on the oocytes’ mitochondrial function. Mitochondria are crucial for oocyte maturation, and their dysfunction under EGBE exposure was a critical concern. NMN supplementation restored mitochondrial distribution and functionality, re-establishing the energy balance within the cells. Other nicotinamide mononucleotide benefits were the protective effects it extended to reduce the occurrence of apoptosis or programmed cell death. By countering the toxic effects of EGBE, NMN ensured cell survival, preserving the quality of the oocytes. This finding was pivotal, demonstrating NMN’s capacity to mitigate damage and actively promote cell viability in adverse conditions. Addressing Infertility: The Potential of NMN Supplementation In the face of rising infertility rates, using nicotinamide mononucleotide supplementation to enhance egg quality has become focal. Miao and colleagues have conducted a groundbreaking study that sheds light on NMN’s role in safeguarding reproductive health, particularly in improving NMN egg quality. They aimed to do so even in adverse conditions induced by exposure to harmful chemicals like EGBE. The study demonstrates how NMN supplementation can ensure the preservation of oocyte integrity. The infusion of NMN aids in restoring NAD+ levels, which are crucial for energy production and DNA repair. By enhancing mitochondrial function and ensuring proper cell division, NMN supplementation directly improves egg quality. Furthermore, the benefits of nicotinamide mononucleotide also included reducing apoptosis in oocytes exposed to EGBE. This aspect of NMN’s protective role is crucial, as it ensures that a greater number of viable eggs are available for fertilization. Broader Implications for Human Fertility The study by Miao and colleagues from Nanjing Agricultural University meticulously unveils the reprotoxic effects of EGBE. EGBE exposure can disrupt oocyte maturation in pigs, leading to compromised cell structure, mitochondrial dysfunction, and an accumulation of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage, ultimately resulting in oocyte death. Remarkably, the study stamps the benefits of NMN supplementation as a powerful antidote. It demonstrated its profound ability to rescue oocyte quality by restoring cellular integrity, enhancing mitochondrial function, and mitigating oxidative stress. This compelling research underscores the imperative need to protect reproductive health from environmental pollutants and position NMN supplements as a promising intervention.