NMN doubles the length of human telomeres over a 90-day period. Giving the compound to mice also reduced the species diversity of bacteria in the microbiome. As humans age, the repetitive strands of DNA at the ends of our chromosomes, called telomeres, shorten. Telomere erosion leads to aging-related disorders, such as metabolic diseases and cardiac complications. In this sense, aging-induced inflammation disturbs the balance between beneficial and harmful gut bacteria, leading to inflammation that precedes age-related diseases (inflammation). Previous studies have shown that the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) precursor, NMN, lengthens telomeres and restores healthy gut bacteria. Whether NMN provides these benefits for everyone has not been well studied in clinical trials. Wu and colleagues from the Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology showed in a recent publication of a clinical trial that administering 500 mg/L of NMN in drinking water to 16 juvenile rats months (equivalent to 45-60 years old) mice) for 40 days changed the diversity of the gut microbiota and increased telomere length. The China-based team also found that oral NMN supplementation doubled telomere length for 90 days in human blood cells known as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). . Given these findings, it is possible that increasing telomere length would inhibit the onset of age-related diseases and thereby improve life expectancy, which could also potentially increase life expectancy. NMN stimulates metabolism in mice. To establish the benefits of NMN in mice, Wu and his colleagues measured thermogenesis, the body’s process of producing heat, in correlation with increased cellular energy production. Thermogenesis is a biomarker, a biomarker, of metabolism – the process of energy generation by cellular processes that produce the energy-packaging molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Evaluation of metabolism by body temperature showed that the use of NMN for more than 40 weeks increased thermogenesis by about 10%, confirming that the compound improved metabolic function. NMN alters gut microbial diversity Wu and colleagues then measured the microbial composition of feces in mice and found that NMN promotes a healthy gut by improving the bacterial composition. The health of gut bacteria is a biomarker of overall physiological health. Researchers in Tianjin observed that short-term use of NMN reduced the diversity of bacterial species in the gut. Notably, some species of healthy bacteria associated with the gut were greatly increased, such as Mucispirillum, Colidextribacter and Candidatus_Sacharimonas. On the other hand, bacteria commonly found in patients with age-related diseases such as Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium and Paenalcaligenes have decreased in prevalence. Oral Use NMN Drives Telomere Extension Wu and colleagues then measured telomere length in mice and humans. The team found that short-term use of NMN increased telomere length by 20-25% in mice. The researchers also found that short-term (90 days) administration of NMN nearly doubled telomere length in humans, suggesting potential health benefits and life-prolonging effects. (Wu et al., 2021 | Frontiers in Nutrition) Administration of NMN to mice and humans significantly prolongs telomere length in immune cells. The left figure shows an approximately 20% increase in telomere length in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The figure on the right shows that telomere length increases in a linear fashion such that after 90 days of NMN ingestion, telomere length nearly doubles. The evidence gathered from this study indicates that NMN improves gut microbiota composition in mice and telomere length in rats and humans, and these effects can significantly improve health. Whether or not NMN promotes longer life, research shows that it can help people extend the number of years they live in good health and happiness. Limitations of the study include the fact that long-term NMN supplementation was not examined. How the body metabolizes NMN, especially at higher doses, should also be examined. In addition, the impact of lower gut flora diversity on aging will require further investigation. Essentially, the concern that researchers should soon address is “how many NMNs is too much?” Until the research community has a better understanding of the recommended dosage for NMN and appropriate clinical guidelines, the appropriate amount of NMN to be consumed in humans for a number of clinical indications remains unexplored and is currently under investigation. discovery in research.